Since Elliot was first published and became one of the main metaphors of the 20th century, this term has been used in countless short stories, novels, poems, and plays. Watanabe, Silvia Facts about companions of American short story document, 2nd edition literary series companion In , Helio saw one of the most influential and important poems of the 20th century "Wasted Land".
In a complex and innovative style, it uses myths and symbols to express modern life and cultural crisis after the war. In the publication of "Wastelands" and the death of , Elliott was a predominant figure in Western culture. The surface wasteland of wastelands is related to "disillusionment of generations". This poem was written in the early s due to abusive poverty in the end of World War I of , an increase in the unemployment rate, and unresolved disasters.
Still, or due to this, people are still enjoying with all their hearts and souls. By doing so, they lost direction, faith, and personality. They are the victims of the class system, which maintains the privilege system, interrogation and distrust. At The Westland Elliott developed a theme of infertility and corruption in men after the First World War and focused on "superficial reflections in superficial religious lack or desperate love" pinion I hit it. For Elliot, people can neither find true love nor transcend the superficial sexual satisfaction, which is consistent with the spiritual decline of his soul.
Ability to flower. Infertility in modern society 20, Elliot talked about a young sailor Tristan In a series of episodes roughly related to the legend of the Holy Grail, it represents a panic fear and a barren boring world. Desire and humanity wait for signs of certain salvation and promises. The style of this poem is very complex, knowledgeable and suggestive, and the poet provides memos and references to explain the many citations and implications of the work.
This academic supplement deflects the attention of some readers and critics and makes it impossible to perceive the original originality of poetry. That literary reference range, not operation. In his early verse, Elliott proved to be a master of the poetry. Elliott said that culture is "lifeless" and "dark.
One reason why culture is stagnant is that British people were "shocked" at the atrocities of the First World War. Elliot drew this story in the brown fog at the dawn of winter at the "funeral of the dead" group of people flowing through the London bridge. Eliot talked about the young sailor Tristan's story Elliott's "The Waste Land" is a complex intensive poem with many literary suggestions to solve the mental crisis caused by modernity.
Oxford's British literary colleagues describe Eliot's poetry as "satire, proposal, cosmopolitanism, sometimes lyricism and elegy" 1. Notorious for their indomitable rationality and their artistic difficulty, his reputation is difficult. A great writer is a great editor.
Essays on The Waste Land
He calls it "a better craftsmaker in her mother tongue. Eliot drafted The Waste Land during a trip to Lausanne in Switzerland and consulted a psychologist on a mild neurological case he said. He sent the manuscript to Ezra Pound with the help of editing.
Between them, the draft was extensively compiled and published in His reason for it was a modernist quest for an alternative vision of human history, the state of humanity, and a search for images that could present that state; in this case more Celtic than mainstream Christian.
However, even though Eliot never mentions this in either his Notes or elsewhere, the structure and poetic method of The Waste Land owe a great debt also to Richard Wagner , the German composer, poet and theoretician of art, perhaps greater than to Jessie Weston. If the quest for the Grail is to be taken as pivotal to the poem, this is confusing, as Wagner had, of course, wrote one of his operas about Parsifal , the Grail knight. But this is not the only parallel and it cannot be taken as just coincidental.
Although Wagner is essentially a Romantic composer, his works and ideas point the way towards modernism and have greatly helped Eliot in shaping his own literary method. Another powerful influence on The Waste Land remains practically unexplored: not only are the rhythms of this poem closer to syncopation than to metronomic regularity, but the entire poem is reminiscent of a dirge, a blues lamenting the human condition and destiny. It is not surprising that the sensibility of a musician and writer such as Ralph Ellison, perhaps the foremost twentieth century African-American novelist, recognized this aspect of The Waste Land ; he mentioned it in a speech which he later turned into a literary and autobiographical essay, which was published in the book, Shadow and Act Reminiscing about his own education, he said:.
Somehow its rhythms [of The Waste Land ] were often closer to those of jazz than were those of the Negro poets; and even though I could not understand then, its range of allusion was as mixed and as varied as that of Louis Armstrong. Yet there were its discontinuities, its changes of pace, and its hidden system of organization, which escaped me. It is the pervasive presence of jazz in the poem that defines the very core of The Waste Land , its literary method: it was this quality that enchanted Ellison. In the recently published words of R. Much as a jazz musician takes a well-known song and works bits of it into a series of variations and changes without ever playing the entire melody straight through,, so the poet of The Waste Land evokes shadowy images of many of the great works of world literature, without ever actually narrating a complete version of any story.
Just like a jazz musician, Eliot need not play out the complete melody either: the listener or reader is expected to recognize musical or literary allusions within their context or ambience, so that a word or a line does not bring only the flavor of a tune or a literary work but also its historical context. In this way, every detail of the complex edifice becomes important for itself as well as a part of the whole.
The syncopated rhythms of enjambment add a musical as well as a semantic dimension, emerging occasionally to reflect changes of versification, speaker or situation and bring form and content together. The title is general enough to make sense outside the contexts of anthropology or folklore and can be applied to any historic period, including very appropriately the one we live in.
The epigraph, on the other hand, apart from imparting a flavor of classical antiquity through its combination of ancient Greek and Latin, stresses the terror of life in the waste land: Sibyl [Sibylla], who craves death but is unable to renounce the gift of immortality, is the image of human soul hopelessly suspended in the hopelessness of a meaningless existence. The horror!
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The famous opening lines on April being the cruellest month are yet another example of the modernist tendency to reverse traditional literary meanings. In the waste land, renewal of life is painful and tedious, as it is in fact a return to awareness of life in death which was more pleasant and less noticeable in hibernation, while asleep; it mixes memory and desire to raise our awareness of that which can never return to us, or to life.
The aristocratic ambience reflects the characteristics of this world: false national pride line 12 , but also fear and claustrophobia. Though seemingly cosmopolitan, this life is strictly limited by written and unwritten rules: the sense of freedom experienced in the mountains is a reminder of its absence in the valleys.
In a splintered world where tradition — the mind of the past — becomes reduced to a heap of broken images, everything boils down to mere survival; the quotidian monotony of passing time. After all, Sibyl from the epigraph had asked Apollo to grant her as many years of life as there were grains of dust on her palm. Tristan and Isolde are, as Denis de Rougemont showed, archetypal lovers of the European civilization, but also an image of unsuccessful attempts to overcome existential absurdity through love.
This is also what the second Wagner quotation means which ends this section: Tristan will never see Isolde again. Being a prophet in the waste land is, indeed, no easy task; a situation devoid of change makes it particularly difficult; there, the proverbial waiting period lasts a long time, if not forever. The clairvoyant Sosostris 22 , a phoney prophet, does not understand the sacred mysteries of Tarot cards, which were once used to predict fertility of the land, essential for human survival.
T.S. Eliot's The Wasteland Essay
The modern-day clairvoyant has reduced everything to self-interest and, using the sacred for profane ends, tells her clients what they want to hear: what was once ritual has been turned into daily opportunism. But one must take into account that all women in The Waste Land are in fact Belladonnas, as claimed by Langbaum 23 and that all men are partly reminiscent of either the drowned Phoenician sailor, the man with three staves or the one-eyed merchant. And thus Tarot cards, though misunderstood and misused , still rule the world.
If Stetson is really a version of Ezra Pound, then this articulates the issue of resurrecting literature by means of old literary corpses, perhaps only temporarily dead in the general sterility of modern life. The answer to this question will not, of course, appear in the poem in a direct and unambiguous form, but is, nevertheless, the central theme of The Waste Land , paraphrased by the medieval longing for the Grail.
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But what the poem also examines are the reasons why civilization died, why the waste land appeared. Sex without ritual — stripped of its framework of tradition and form — is mere rape. But rape can come in other, more direct and indirect forms: is it possible that Cleopatra once upon a time truly fell in love with both Caesar and Anthony?
Is ambition for the creation of an empire more important than love? Have women forgotten their primary mission, the survival of the human race?
Whatever the case, the modern rich woman of the poem is indeed — as Tate says 24 — surrounded by glorious works of art from the past, but she fails to notice them or understand the significance of the fact of Cupids, gods of love, surrounding her. This part of the poem presents two couples: a rich lines to and a poor one lines , but, apart from their financial status, there are no other significant differences between them.
The lives of both, the rich and the poor, are hollow and squalid — but for different reasons: the rich woman is agonized by boredom and fear of loneliness, whereas poor Lil is surrounded by threats of excessive fertility, the consequences of numerous abortions as well as unprincipled sexual competition. In any case, lives of these two women, and consequently their partners, are empty and unsatisfying at both personal and social levels: they contain neither morality, nor faith or love.
However, these relationships are relatively stable and predominantly monogamous; they reflect the state of long-term relationships. As far as more radical human relationships — such as passionate love affairs — are concerned, things are even worse. Porter and her daughter, teamed up with the small-time gangster Sweeney. But the tone of the poem constantly varies between the sublime and the vulgar; the washing of the feet is also reminiscent of contraceptive ablutions. After a brief intermezzo lines which recalls the ancient narrative of rape and crime, the poet introduces an eight-line stanza in which Mr.
Eugenides, a modern equivalent of the one-eyed merchant or the Phoenician sailor, makes an indecent proposal to the narrator, but he soon returns to heterosexual passion in the key stanza lines in which the prophet Tiresias, plays a double role of observer and commentator, modeled on chorus from Greek tragedies. Here, in a surreal merger of the sublime and the vulgar, like in line , we read of sexual intercourse between the typist and the young man painfully carbuncular, entirely mechanical, devoid of any pretence of feelings on either side. Knowledge and awareness bring nothing but suffering and damnation for Tiresias and other inhabitants of the waste land.
In the next eight-line stanza, the focus shifts from Tiresias to the typist, who is aware of the misery of her relationship and yet ready to seek comfort in the mechanical music of the gramophone, without questioning a follow-up tryst, avoiding any thought of a deeper relationship. It is the music that connects this stanza to the next, whose nine lines speak of authentic music which can still be found somewhere in London, even if it is to be sought with humble fishermen, not the nobility or the city-folk. The atmosphere of the waste land is self-destructive.
Its first two stanzas depict the modern Thames lines to as well as the Elizabethan one lines to ; the only difference between them being that the royal barge which floated in it in the 16th century has been replaced by commercial barges of the 20 century.
The Wasteland Essay – James Linton Writing
Each of the two thirteen-line stanzas ends in lament by the Daughters of the river, a quotation from Wagner. They evoke choral singing, followed by solo arias of each of the daughters two quatrains and the third a five-line stanza. All three stories are in fact identical, and serve to highlight the theme of dissatisfaction or emptiness brought on by sexual desire or need. Viewed literally, one could say that Eliot in it discuses water in its other incarnation and function: it is not only a life-bringing liquid that could turn the waste land into a fertile land, it can also be deadly and it stands in direct contrast to the fire of passion of Part III: Eros is accompanied by Thanatos.
But here we are no longer dealing with life in death, a monotonous, vegetative existence instead of life, but with real death that everyone should remember each day; death which comes as a final release, a deliverance from the illusory world of senses. When it comes to choosing between the two contradictory Latin proverbs, Carpe diem or Memento mori , Eliot consistently opts for the latter; throughout the whole poem, but particularly in this part.
Eliot himself says — this time in a letter 25 — that Part V of The Waste Land is for him the best of all. Better Essays words 3 pages Preview. It is the simple, yet extremely intricate skill performed by humans everyday. The uniqueness of an eye can be described as different combinations of colors that draw people in for deep conversations and contact with one another. As light shines its beams onto an eye, different colors sparkle, making beautiful shades shine through.
Without eyes, human beings would not be able to visualize the wonderful aspects of nature Term Papers words 7 pages Preview. Eliot drafted The Waste Land during a trip to Lausanne, Switzerland to consult a psychologist for what he described as mild case of nerves. He sent the manuscript to Ezra Pound for editing assistance. Between them the draft was extensively edited and published in He paints the picture as he sees it for the readers to view and interpret from their own perspective Eliot Waste Land Essays].
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